Herculaneum is a city in Jefferson County, Missouri, United States. The population was 3,468 at the 2010 census. The City of Herculaneum was the first county seat of Jefferson County from January 1, 1819 to 1839. The city celebrated its bicentennial throughout 2008.
Herculaneum is located at 38°15′33″N 90°23′16″W / 38.25917°N 90.38778°W / 38.25917; -90.38778 (38.259247, -90.387790).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.10 square miles (10.62 km), of which 4.06 square miles (10.52 km) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km) is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,468 people, 1,309 households, and 927 families residing in the city. The population density was 854.2 inhabitants per square mile (329.8/km). There were 1,449 housing units at an average density of 356.9 per square mile (137.8/km). The racial makeup of the city was 95.4% White, 1.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population.
There were 1,309 households of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 29.2% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.00.
The median age in the city was 37.8 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 6.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29% were from 25 to 44; 24.4% were from 45 to 64; and 16.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,805 people, 1,028 households, and 736 families residing in the city. The population density was 815.8 people per square mile (314.8/km²). There were 1,078 housing units at an average density of 313.5 per square mile (121.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.65% White, 2.60% African American, 0.18% Asian, 0.04% from other races, and 0.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population.
There were 1,028 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.0% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.4% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, and 21.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,365, and the median income for a family was $50,615. Males had a median income of $33,603 versus $25,581 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,613. About 2.4% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.