Madison County is a county located in the Lead Belt region of the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,226. Its county seat and largest city is Fredericktown. The county was officially organized on December 14, 1818, and was named after President James Madison.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 498 square miles (1,290 km), of which 494 square miles (1,280 km) is land and 3.2 square miles (8.3 km) (0.6%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 11,800 people, 4,711 households, and 3,330 families residing in the county. The population density was 24 people per square mile (9/km²). There were 5,656 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile (4/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 98.30% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.20% from other races, and 0.83% from two or more races. Approximately 0.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 4,711 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.30% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, and 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 92.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $30,421, and the median income for a family was $37,474. Males had a median income of $27,670 versus $15,909 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,825. About 12.80% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.60% of those under age 18 and 16.20% of those age 65 or over.
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report (2000), Madison County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion. The most predominant denominations among residents in Madison County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists (37.87%), Independent/Non-Charismatic Churches (17.42%), and National Association of Free Will Baptists (12.10%).